What a student should know: K-5

You can help your child succeed by understanding what he or she is learning at school and supporting those activities at home. Grade-level expectations describe what a student should know and be able to do in all subject areas. Teachers focus curriculum, instruction and assessments on grade-level expectations.

If you have questions about specific classroom activities or school programs, please contact your child’s teacher.

Assessing learning

Teachers collect information about what students know and can do in various ways:

  • Direct observations of performance
  • Reviews of written work and assignments
  • Formal assessments, including district and state tests

Test results and other information about student learning are shared with parents through conferences, report cards and special reports.

Reporting practices

Each elementary school reports to parents four times per year. The first report, received during fall conferences, will address personal and social development, work habits and study skills, as well as recommendations for student learning. In addition, an individual report card will be provided to parents at the end of each trimester.

Questions about reporting practices and/or assessments of your child’s learning should be directed to his or her classroom teacher.

Resources

Building Readers
How families can help children become better readers


Desarrollando la Lectura
Maneras en que las familias pueden ayudar a los niños a ser mejores lectores

Kindergarten

Kindergarteners often:

  • Show increasing ability to focus on tasks
  • Are active but capable of controlling physical behavior
  • Like rules and routines
  • Seek approval
  • See only one way to do things
  • Begin to think logically
(Reading, writing, listening, speaking)
In kindergarten, students will learn the alphabet and the basic features of letters and words. They will break down spoken and written words into syllables and letters and identify the sounds each letter makes. These important skills will enable your child to learn new words and to read and understand simple books and stories. Students also will learn to write and share information in a variety of ways, including drawing, writing letters and words, listening to others and speaking aloud. They:

  • Identify and produce words that rhyme
  • Name and write upper and lowercase letters
  • Match letters to sounds and use other methods to figure out unfamiliar words when reading and writing
  • Read common words (such as “the,” “of,” “you,” “are,” “she” and “my”)
  • Read emergent-reader predictable, patterned texts with purpose and understanding
  • Learn and use new words
  • Ask and answer questions about a story or text the teacher reads out loud
  • Identify characters and settings and retell major events in a story or text
  • Recognize the person, place, thing or idea that an illustration shows
  • Participate in discussions by listening and taking turns speaking
  • Describe familiar people, places, things and events, expressing feelings and ideas clearly
  • Use a combination of drawing, speaking and writing to describe an event, give information about a topic or share an opinion
  • Take part in shared reading, writing and research projects
In kindergarten, students begin to develop basic notions of numbers and use numbers to think about objects and the world around them. They practice counting objects in sets, and they think about how numbers are ordered by showing the numbers on the number line. As they put together and take apart simple numbers, students lay the groundwork for learning how to add and subtract.

The Standards for Mathematical Practice K-12 describe behaviors that all students will develop in the Washington State Learning Standards. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” including problem-solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation and making connections. These practices will allow students to understand and apply mathematics with confidence.

Counting and cardinality

  • Knows number names and the count sequence
  • Counts to tell the number of objects
  • Compares numbers

Operations and algebraic thinking

  • Understands addition as putting together and adding to
  • Understands subtraction as taking apart and taking from

Number and operations in base 10

  • Works with numbers 11 to 19 to gain foundations for place value
  • Measurement and data
  • Describes and compares measurable attributes
  • Classifies objects and counts the number of objects in categories

Geometry

  • Identifies and describes shapes
  • Analyzes, compares, creates and composes shapes
Through making observations and planning investigations, students build their understanding of science. Topics of study include life, earth and physical science.

  • Understands and applies scientific concepts, content and principles
  • Participates in inquiry
Through units of study, students will build knowledge and skills in history, geography, economics and civics with the goal of developing responsible citizenship.

  • Understands concepts and content, including ourselves and others
  • Participates in projects and activities
Students develop the concepts and skills necessary for a safe, active and healthy life.

  • Understands health and wellness concepts
  • Participates in health and wellness projects and activities
  • Understands concepts and develops skills
In the visual arts, music and creative movement, students acquire knowledge and skills to create, perform and respond in the arts and in other content areas.

Visual arts

  • Uses lines to create shapes
  • Identifies colors
  • Uses tools and materials safely

Music

  • Sings and demonstrates beat
  • Creates sounds from different sources

Creative movement

  • Experiences movement elements through games, songs, stories and music
  • Forms lines and circles in a group
  • Responds in movement to simple directions and signals

First grade

First-graders often:

  • Thrive on encouragement and are anxious to do well
  • Rush to complete assignments, with speed valued more than quality
  • Can be competitive and enthusiastic
  • Like to explain things
  • Love jokes and guessing games
  • Enjoy learning through discovery
(Reading, writing, listening, speaking)
In first grade, students will build important reading, writing, speaking and listening skills. They will continue to learn the letters and sounds that make up words. They will think, talk and write about what they read in stories, articles and other sources of information. In their writing, students will work on putting together clear sentences on a range of topics using a growing vocabulary.

  • Asks and answers questions about a story or text, including characters, settings, major events and key details
  • Reads grade-level text smoothly with accuracy and fluency
  • Reads stories/poems and shows they understand the lesson or moral
  • Compares and contrasts different texts and/or different characters within a story or text
  • Explains differences between texts that tell stories and texts that provide information
  • Identifies the main topic and reasons an author gives to support a point
  • Learns and uses new words
  • Learns basic rules of spoken and written English
  • Participates in class discussions by listening, responding to what others are saying and asking questions
  • Describes people, places, things and events, expressing feelings and ideas clearly
  • Works with others to gather facts and information on a topic
  • Writes to describe an event, provide information on a topic or share an opinion
In first grade, students continue to work with whole numbers to quantify objects. They consider how numbers relate to one another. As they expand the set of numbers they work with, students start to develop critical concepts of ones and tens that introduce them to place value in our base 10 number system. An understanding of how ones and 10 relate to each other allows students to begin adding and subtracting two-digit numbers, where thinking of 10 ones as one 10 and vice versa is routine.

The Standards for Mathematical Practice K-12 describe behaviors that all students will develop in the Washington State Learning Standards. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies,” including problem-solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation and making connections. These practices will allow students to understand and apply mathematics with confidence.

Operations and algebraic thinking

  • Represents and solves problems involving addition and subtraction
  • Understands and applies properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction
  • Adds and subtracts within 20
  • Works with addition and subtraction equations

Quickly recall addition and subtraction facts for sums to 10
Number and operations in base 10

  • Extends the counting sequence
  • Understands place value
  • Uses place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract

Measurement and data

  • Measures lengths indirectly and by iterating length units
  • Tells and writes time
  • Represents and interprets data

Geometry

  • Reasons with shapes and their attributes
Through making observations and planning investigations, students build their understanding of science. Topics of study include life, earth and physical science.

  • Understands and applies scientific concepts, content and principles
  • Applies skills and procedures
  • Participates in inquiry and scientific design
Through units of study, students will build knowledge and skills in history, geography, economics and civics with the goal of developing responsible citizenship.

  • Understands the concepts and content including rule systems, school and family and introductory map skills
  • Applies research skills (acquires, organizes and presents information)
  • Participates in projects and activities
Students develop the concepts and skills necessary for a safe, active and healthy life.

  • Understands health and wellness concepts
  • Participates in health and wellness projects and activities
  • Understands the relationship between physical fitness and health
  • Participates safely and cooperatively in a variety of developmentally appropriate physical activities
In the visual arts, music and creative movement, students acquire knowledge and skills to create, perform and respond in the arts and in other content areas.

Visual arts

  • Identifies lines and shapes
  • Mixes secondary colors from primary colors
  • Uses repetition to create pattern

Music

  • Identifies high and low pitch, soft and loud dynamics and fast and slow tempos
  • Sings and matches pitch, melody and rhythm

Creative movement

  • Performs various locomotor and non-locomotor movements
  • Repeats movement patterns
  • Demonstrates concentration while moving

Second grade

Second-graders often:

  • Are good listeners and precise talkers who like one-to-one conversation
  • Experience rapid changes in feelings/mood
  • Need security and structure
  • Like to be read to and to play board games
  • Want to discover how things work and like to take things apart
(Reading, writing, listening, speaking)
In second grade, students will continue to build important reading, writing, speaking and listening skills. They will think, talk and write about what they read in a variety of texts, such as stories, books, articles and other sources of information including the Internet. In their writing, students will learn how to develop a topic and strengthen their skills by editing and revising.

  • Answers who, what, where, when, why and how questions about stories and texts
  • Reads grade-level text smoothly with accuracy and fluency at the rate of 87 words correct per minute at the end of second grade
  • Reads stories, including fables and folktales from different cultures, and identifies the lesson or moral
  • Reads texts about history, social studies or science and identifies the main idea
  • Compares and contrasts different versions of the same story or text
  • Describes the reasons an author gives to support a point
  • Learns and uses new words
  • Learns the rules of spoken and written English
  • Participates in class discussions by listening and building on what others are saying
  • Describes in their own words information learned from articles or books read aloud
  • Works together to gather facts and information on a topic
  • Writes about events, provides information on a topic or states an opinion using important details and examples to support a position
In second grade, students refine their understanding of the base 10 number system and use place value concepts of ones, tens and hundreds to understand number relationships. They become fluent in writing and renaming numbers in a variety of ways. This fluency, combined with the understanding of place value, is a strong foundation for learning how to add and subtract two-digit numbers.

The Standards for Mathematical Practice K-12 describe behaviors that all students will develop in the Washington State Learning Standards. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” including problem-solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation and making connections. These practices will allow students to understand and apply mathematics with confidence.

Operations and algebraic thinking

  • Represents and solves problems involving addition and subtraction
  • Adds and subtracts within 20
  • Works with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication

Quickly recall addition and subtraction facts for sums to 20
Number and operations in base 10

  • Understands place value
  • Uses places value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract

Measurement and data

  • Measures and estimates lengths in standard units
  • Relates addition and subtraction to length
  • Works with time and money
  • Represents and interprets data

Geometry

  • Reasons with shapes
Through making observations and planning investigations, students build their understanding of science. Topics of study include life, earth and physical science.

  • Understands and applies scientific concepts, content and principles
  • Applies skills and procedures
  • Participates in inquiry and scientific design
Through units of study, students will build knowledge and skills in history, geography, economics and civics with the goal of developing responsible citizenship.

  • Understands concepts and content including basic map skills, community and global connections
  • Applies research skills (acquires, organizes and presents information)
  • Participates in projects and activities
Students develop the concepts and skills necessary for a safe, active and healthy life.

  • Understands health and wellness concepts
  • Participates in health and wellness projects and activities
  • Understands the relationship between physical fitness and health
  • Participates safely and cooperatively in a variety of developmentally appropriate physical activities
In the visual arts, music and creative movement, students acquire knowledge and skills to create, perform and respond in the arts and in other content areas.

Visual arts

  • Identifies warm and cool colors
  • Creates space in artwork using overlap and relative size
  • Identifies and uses emphasis/dominance

Music/instrumental music

  • Reads, writes, creates and performs simple rhythms using quarter notes, half notes, paired eighth notes and rests
  • Identifies and applies simple musical forms (such as AB, ABA, call and response)

Creative movement

  • Identifies and applies spatial elements such as shape, level and pathway
  • Creates movement sequences with beginning, middle and end
  • Performs simple dances with a small group

Third grade

Third-graders often:

  • Begin to feel a sense of competence with skills
  • Are full of energy
  • Challenge limits and boundaries
  • Are resilient and bounce back quickly from mistakes
  • Are talkative and like to explain ideas
  • Listen, but are so full of ideas they cannot always recall what has been said
(Reading, writing, listening, speaking)
In third grade, students will continue to build important reading, writing, speaking and listening skills. Learning to read with fluency and confidence will serve as a foundation for the reading demands in later grades. They will think, talk and write about what they have read in a variety of articles, books and other sources of information including the Internet. In their writing, students will pay more attention to organizing information; developing ideas; and supporting these ideas with facts, details and reasons.

  • Asks and answers questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as a basis for the answers
  • Reads grade-level text smoothly with accuracy and fluency at the rate of 100 words correct per minute at the end of the school year
  • Reads and summarizes stories from diverse cultures; identifies the central message/theme and describes how the actions of characters contribute to story events by referring to key details in the text
  • Reads texts about history, social studies or science to determine main idea, key details and relationships between a series of events
  • Compares and contrasts important points presented in two texts on similar topics; distinguishes own point of view from that of the narrator, characters or author
  • Describes how the author uses comparisons, cause/effect and sequence to connect sentences and paragraphs in a text
  • Learns and uses new words, including words related to specific subjects
  • Learns the rules of spoken and written English
  • Participates in class discussions by listening, asking questions, sharing ideas and building on the ideas of others
  • Gathers and interprets information gained from words and illustrations (such as maps, pictures, etc.) from multiple sources to build understanding on a topic
  • Clearly presents information orally using relevant facts and details
  • Writes about events, provides information on a topic or states an opinion, supporting a point of view with reasons
In third grade, students learn basic multiplication and division facts. They explore the relationship between multiplication and division as they learn the related division and multiplication facts in the same fact family. These skills, along with mental math and estimation, allow students to solve problems that call for multiplication. Building on an understanding of how multiplication and division relate to each other, students prepare to learn efficient procedures for division, which will be developed in fourth grade. Multiplication is also central to students’ study of many other topics in mathematics across the grades, including fractions and algebra.

The Standards for Mathematical Practice K-12 describe behaviors that all students will develop in the Washington State Learning Standards. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies,” including problem-solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation and making connections. These practices will allow students to understand and apply mathematics with confidence.

Operations and algebraic thinking

  • Represents and solves problems involving multiplication and division
  • Understands properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division
  • Multiplies and divides within 100
  • Solves problems involving the four operations, and identifies and explains patterns in arithmetic

Quickly recall multiplication and division facts to 10
Number and operations in base 10

  • Uses place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic

Number and operations: fractions

  • Develops understanding of fractions as numbers

Measurement and data

  • Solves problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes and masses of objects
  • Represents and interprets data
  • Geometric measurement: understands concepts or area and relate area to multiplication and to addition
  • Geometric measurement: recognizes perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguishes between linear and area measures

Geometry

  • Reasons with shapes and their attributes
Through making observations and planning investigations, students build their understanding of science. Topics of study include life, earth and physical science.

  • Understands and applies scientific concepts, content and principles
  • Applies skills and procedures
  • Participates in inquiry and scientific design
Through units of study, students will build knowledge and skills in history, geography, economics and civics with the goal of developing responsible citizenship.

  • Understands concepts and content including basic map skills, community and global connections
  • Applies research skills (acquires, organizes and presents information)
  • Participates in projects and activities
Students develop the concepts and skills necessary for a safe, active and healthy life.

  • Understands health and wellness concepts
  • Participates in health and wellness projects and activities
  • Understands the relationship between physical fitness and health
  • Participates safely and cooperatively in a variety of developmentally appropriate physical activities
In the visual arts, music and creative movement, students acquire knowledge and skills to create, perform and respond in the arts and in other content areas.

Visual arts

  • Identifies and creates color values
  • Uses line to create detail
  • Blends art media for different visual purpose

Music/instrumental music

  • Understands that sound is produced by vibration
  • Identifies and uses musical notation
  • Plays various unpitched percussion instruments

Creative movement

  • Maintains steady beat while moving to music
  • Identifies and applies asymmetry and dynamic contrast
  • Increases balance and muscle control
  • Learns keyboarding and word-processing skills
  • Begins to apply technology skills to learning

Fourth grade

Fourth-graders often:

  • Show curiosity and love to learn about topics of interest
  • Push self to physical limits and tire easily
  • Are highly competitive
  • Love vocabulary, language play and information
  • Are industrious and self-critical
(Reading, writing, listening, speaking)

In fourth grade, students will continue to build important reading, writing, speaking and listening skills.  They will build the stamina and skills to read more challenging literature, articles and other sources of information and continue to grow their vocabulary. They will be expected to clearly explain in detail what they have read by referring to details or information from the text. In writing, students will organize their ideas and develop topics with reasons, facts, details and other information.

  • Refers to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says; draws inferences from the text
  • Reads grade-level text smoothly with accuracy and fluency at the rate of 115 words correct per minute at the end of fourth grade
  • Reads and summarizes stories from diverse cultures; determines a theme/main idea, character, setting or event in a story, drama or poem from details in the text
  • Reads texts about history, social studies or science to explain events, procedures, ideas or concepts
  • Compares and contrasts similar themes or topics and points of view from which different stories and/or events are narrated or described
  • Explains how the author uses reasons and evidence to support points in a text
  • Learns and uses new words, including words related to specific subjects
  • Learns the rules of spoken and written English
  • Participates in class discussions by listening, asking questions, sharing ideas paraphrasing and building on the ideas of others
  • Gathers and interprets information gained from words and illustrations (such as maps, pictures, etc.) from multiple sources to build understanding on a topic
  • Clearly presents information orally using relevant facts and details
  • Writes about events, provides information on a topic or states an opinion, supporting a point of view with reasons
In fourth grade, students learn efficient ways to divide whole numbers. They apply what they know about division to solve problems, using estimation and mental math skills to decide whether their results are reasonable. This emphasis on division gives students a complete set of tools for adding, subtraction, multiplying and dividing whole numbers—basic skills for everyday life and further study of mathematics.

The Standards for Mathematical Practice K-12 describe behaviors that all students will develop in the Washington State Learning Standards.  These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies,” including problem-solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation and making connections.  These practices will allow students to understand and apply mathematics with confidence.

Operations and algebraic thinking

  • Uses the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems
  • Gains familiarity with factors and multiples
  • Generates and analyzes patterns

Number and operations in base 10

  • Generalizes place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers
  • Uses place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic

Number and operations: fractions

  • Extends understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering
  • Builds fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers
  • Understands decimal notation from fractions, and compares decimal fractions

Measurement and data

  • Solves problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit
  • Represents and interprets data
  • Understands concepts of angle and measures angles

Geometry

  • Draws and identifies lines and angles, and classifies shapes by properties of their lines and angles
Through making observations and planning investigations, students build their understanding of science. Topics of study include life, earth and physical science.

  • Understands and applies scientific concepts, content and principles
  • Applies skills and procedures
  • Participates in inquiry and scientific design
Through units of study, students will build knowledge and skills in history, geography, economics and civics with the goal of developing responsible citizenship.

  • Understands concepts and content including map skills and Washington state history and geography
  • Applies research skills (acquires, organizes, analyzes and presents information)
  • Participates in projects and activities
Students develop the concepts and skills necessary for a safe, active and healthy life.

  • Understands health and wellness concepts
  • Participates in health and wellness projects and activities
  • Understands the relationship between physical fitness and health
  • Participates safely and cooperatively in a variety of developmentally appropriate physical activities
In the visual arts, music and creative movement, students acquire knowledge and skills to create, perform and respond in the arts and in other content areas.

Visual arts

  • Identifies and creates textures
  • Identifies and uses complementary colors
  • Increases control of tools and process techniques

Music/instrumental music

  • Identifies instruments by sight and sound
  • Demonstrates proper technique on at least one pitched instrument
  • Creates an improvisational interlude

Creative movement

  • Identifies and describes use of elements of movement
  • Improvises using the elements of movement
  • Performs movement sequences from memory
  • Applies keyboarding and word-processing skills
  • Applies technology skills to learning

Fifth grade

Fifth-graders often:

  • Are expressive talkers and good listeners
  • Experience growth spurts (snacks and rest periods are helpful)
  • Are quick to anger and quick to forgive
  • Enjoy both family and peers
  • Can be both cooperative and competitive
  • Like rules, logic and problem-solving
(Reading, writing, listening, speaking)

In fifth grade, students will continue to build important reading, writing, speaking and listening skills.  They will read widely and deeply from a range of high-quality, increasingly challenging literature, articles and other sources of information while continuing to grow their vocabulary.  They will be expected to understand and clearly summarize what they have learned from readings and classroom discussions, referring to specific evidence and details from the text.  Students will write regularly and continue to develop their ability to gather, organize, interpret and present information.

  • Quotes accurately from a text when explaining what the text says; draws inferences from the text
  • Reads grade-level text smoothly with accuracy and fluency at the rate of 130 words correct per minute at the end of fifth grade
  • Reads and summarizes stories from diverse cultures; determines a theme/main idea, character, setting or event in a story, drama or poem from details in the text
  • Reads texts about history, social studies or science to explain relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, procedures, ideas or concepts based on information in the text
  • Compares and contrasts two or more texts of similar themes, topics, or genres; the overall structure of events, ideas, concepts or information; multiple accounts of the same event or topic
  • Explains how the author uses reasons and evidence to support points in a text
  • Learns and uses new words, including words related to specific subjects
  • Learns the rules of spoken and written English
  • Participates in class discussions by listening, asking questions, sharing ideas, paraphrasing and building on the ideas of others
  • Gathers and interprets information gained from words and illustrations (such as maps, pictures, etc.) from multiple sources to build understanding on a topic
  • Clearly presents information orally using relevant facts and details
  • Writes about events, provides information on a topic or states an opinion, supporting a point of view with reasons
In fifth grade, students extend their knowledge about adding and subtracting whole numbers to learning procedures for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing fractions and decimals.  Students apply these procedures, along with mental math and estimation, to solve a wide range of problems that involve more of the types of numbers students see in other school subjects and in their lives.

The Standards for Mathematical Practice K-12 describe behaviors that all students will develop in the Washington State Learning Standards.  These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” including problem-solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation and making connections. These practices will allow students to understand and apply mathematics with confidence.

Operations and algebraic thinking

  • Writes and interprets numerical expressions
  • Analyzes patterns and relationships

Number and operations in base 10

  • Understands the place value system
  • Performs operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths

Number and operations: fractions

  • Uses equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions
  • Applies and extends previous understanding of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions

Measurement and data

  • Converts like measurement units within a given measurement system
  • Represents and interprets data
  • Understands concepts of volume and relates volume to multiplication and to addition

Geometry

  • Graphs points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems
  • Classifies two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties
Through making observations and planning investigations, students build their understanding of science. Topics of study include life, earth and physical science.

  • Understands and applies scientific concepts, content and principles
  • Applies skills and procedures
  • Participates in inquiry and scientific design
Through units of study, students will build knowledge and skills in history, geography, economics and civics with the goal of developing responsible citizenship.

  • Understands concepts and content including map skills and United States history and geography
  • Applies research skills (acquires, organizes, analyzes and presents information)
  • Participates in projects and activities
Students develop the concepts and skills necessary for a safe, active and healthy life.

  • Understands health and wellness concepts
  • Participates in health and wellness projects and activities
  • Understands the relationship between physical fitness and health
  • Participates safely and cooperatively in a variety of developmentally appropriate physical activities
In the visual arts, music and creative movement, students acquire knowledge and skills to create, perform and respond in the arts and in other content areas.

Visual arts

  • Identifies and uses visual art vocabulary and concepts
  • Identifies and uses basic visual art skills and techniques

Music

  • Identifies and uses music vocabulary and concepts
  • Identifies and uses basic music skills and techniques

Creative movement

  • Identifies and uses dance vocabulary and concepts
  • Identifies and uses basic dance skills and techniques
  • Applies keyboarding and word-processing skills
  • Applies technology skills to learning